py23

Python 2/3 compat layer leftovers.

class fontTools.misc.py23.BytesIO(initial_bytes=b'')

Buffered I/O implementation using an in-memory bytes buffer.

close()

Disable all I/O operations.

closed

True if the file is closed.

detach()

Disconnect this buffer from its underlying raw stream and return it.

After the raw stream has been detached, the buffer is in an unusable state.

fileno()

Returns underlying file descriptor if one exists.

OSError is raised if the IO object does not use a file descriptor.

flush()

Does nothing.

getbuffer()

Get a read-write view over the contents of the BytesIO object.

getvalue()

Retrieve the entire contents of the BytesIO object.

isatty()

Always returns False.

BytesIO objects are not connected to a TTY-like device.

read(size=- 1, /)

Read at most size bytes, returned as a bytes object.

If the size argument is negative, read until EOF is reached. Return an empty bytes object at EOF.

read1(size=- 1, /)

Read at most size bytes, returned as a bytes object.

If the size argument is negative or omitted, read until EOF is reached. Return an empty bytes object at EOF.

readable()

Returns True if the IO object can be read.

readinto(buffer, /)

Read bytes into buffer.

Returns number of bytes read (0 for EOF), or None if the object is set not to block and has no data to read.

readinto1(buffer, /)
readline(size=- 1, /)

Next line from the file, as a bytes object.

Retain newline. A non-negative size argument limits the maximum number of bytes to return (an incomplete line may be returned then). Return an empty bytes object at EOF.

readlines(size=None, /)

List of bytes objects, each a line from the file.

Call readline() repeatedly and return a list of the lines so read. The optional size argument, if given, is an approximate bound on the total number of bytes in the lines returned.

seek(pos, whence=0, /)

Change stream position.

Seek to byte offset pos relative to position indicated by whence:

0 Start of stream (the default). pos should be >= 0; 1 Current position - pos may be negative; 2 End of stream - pos usually negative.

Returns the new absolute position.

seekable()

Returns True if the IO object can be seeked.

tell()

Current file position, an integer.

truncate(size=None, /)

Truncate the file to at most size bytes.

Size defaults to the current file position, as returned by tell(). The current file position is unchanged. Returns the new size.

writable()

Returns True if the IO object can be written.

write(b, /)

Write bytes to file.

Return the number of bytes written.

writelines(lines, /)

Write lines to the file.

Note that newlines are not added. lines can be any iterable object producing bytes-like objects. This is equivalent to calling write() for each element.

exception fontTools.misc.py23.Py23Error[source]
args
with_traceback()

Exception.with_traceback(tb) – set self.__traceback__ to tb and return self.

exception fontTools.misc.py23.RecursionError

Recursion limit exceeded.

args
with_traceback()

Exception.with_traceback(tb) – set self.__traceback__ to tb and return self.

class fontTools.misc.py23.SimpleNamespace

A simple attribute-based namespace.

SimpleNamespace(**kwargs)

class fontTools.misc.py23.StringIO(initial_value='', newline='\n')

Text I/O implementation using an in-memory buffer.

The initial_value argument sets the value of object. The newline argument is like the one of TextIOWrapper’s constructor.

close()

Close the IO object.

Attempting any further operation after the object is closed will raise a ValueError.

This method has no effect if the file is already closed.

closed
detach()

Separate the underlying buffer from the TextIOBase and return it.

After the underlying buffer has been detached, the TextIO is in an unusable state.

encoding

Encoding of the text stream.

Subclasses should override.

errors

The error setting of the decoder or encoder.

Subclasses should override.

fileno()

Returns underlying file descriptor if one exists.

OSError is raised if the IO object does not use a file descriptor.

flush()

Flush write buffers, if applicable.

This is not implemented for read-only and non-blocking streams.

getvalue()

Retrieve the entire contents of the object.

isatty()

Return whether this is an ‘interactive’ stream.

Return False if it can’t be determined.

line_buffering
newlines
read(size=- 1, /)

Read at most size characters, returned as a string.

If the argument is negative or omitted, read until EOF is reached. Return an empty string at EOF.

readable()

Returns True if the IO object can be read.

readline(size=- 1, /)

Read until newline or EOF.

Returns an empty string if EOF is hit immediately.

readlines(hint=- 1, /)

Return a list of lines from the stream.

hint can be specified to control the number of lines read: no more lines will be read if the total size (in bytes/characters) of all lines so far exceeds hint.

seek(pos, whence=0, /)

Change stream position.

Seek to character offset pos relative to position indicated by whence:

0 Start of stream (the default). pos should be >= 0; 1 Current position - pos must be 0; 2 End of stream - pos must be 0.

Returns the new absolute position.

seekable()

Returns True if the IO object can be seeked.

tell()

Tell the current file position.

truncate(pos=None, /)

Truncate size to pos.

The pos argument defaults to the current file position, as returned by tell(). The current file position is unchanged. Returns the new absolute position.

writable()

Returns True if the IO object can be written.

write(s, /)

Write string to file.

Returns the number of characters written, which is always equal to the length of the string.

writelines(lines, /)

Write a list of lines to stream.

Line separators are not added, so it is usual for each of the lines provided to have a line separator at the end.

class fontTools.misc.py23.Tag(content)[source]
capitalize()

Return a capitalized version of the string.

More specifically, make the first character have upper case and the rest lower case.

casefold()

Return a version of the string suitable for caseless comparisons.

center(width, fillchar=' ', /)

Return a centered string of length width.

Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).

count(sub[, start[, end]]) → int

Return the number of non-overlapping occurrences of substring sub in string S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

encode(encoding='utf-8', errors='strict')

Encode the string using the codec registered for encoding.

encoding

The encoding in which to encode the string.

errors

The error handling scheme to use for encoding errors. The default is ‘strict’ meaning that encoding errors raise a UnicodeEncodeError. Other possible values are ‘ignore’, ‘replace’ and ‘xmlcharrefreplace’ as well as any other name registered with codecs.register_error that can handle UnicodeEncodeErrors.

endswith(suffix[, start[, end]]) → bool

Return True if S ends with the specified suffix, False otherwise. With optional start, test S beginning at that position. With optional end, stop comparing S at that position. suffix can also be a tuple of strings to try.

expandtabs(tabsize=8)

Return a copy where all tab characters are expanded using spaces.

If tabsize is not given, a tab size of 8 characters is assumed.

find(sub[, start[, end]]) → int

Return the lowest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Return -1 on failure.

format(*args, **kwargs) → str

Return a formatted version of S, using substitutions from args and kwargs. The substitutions are identified by braces (‘{‘ and ‘}’).

format_map(mapping) → str

Return a formatted version of S, using substitutions from mapping. The substitutions are identified by braces (‘{‘ and ‘}’).

index(sub[, start[, end]]) → int

Return the lowest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Raises ValueError when the substring is not found.

isalnum()

Return True if the string is an alpha-numeric string, False otherwise.

A string is alpha-numeric if all characters in the string are alpha-numeric and there is at least one character in the string.

isalpha()

Return True if the string is an alphabetic string, False otherwise.

A string is alphabetic if all characters in the string are alphabetic and there is at least one character in the string.

isascii()

Return True if all characters in the string are ASCII, False otherwise.

ASCII characters have code points in the range U+0000-U+007F. Empty string is ASCII too.

isdecimal()

Return True if the string is a decimal string, False otherwise.

A string is a decimal string if all characters in the string are decimal and there is at least one character in the string.

isdigit()

Return True if the string is a digit string, False otherwise.

A string is a digit string if all characters in the string are digits and there is at least one character in the string.

isidentifier()

Return True if the string is a valid Python identifier, False otherwise.

Call keyword.iskeyword(s) to test whether string s is a reserved identifier, such as “def” or “class”.

islower()

Return True if the string is a lowercase string, False otherwise.

A string is lowercase if all cased characters in the string are lowercase and there is at least one cased character in the string.

isnumeric()

Return True if the string is a numeric string, False otherwise.

A string is numeric if all characters in the string are numeric and there is at least one character in the string.

isprintable()

Return True if the string is printable, False otherwise.

A string is printable if all of its characters are considered printable in repr() or if it is empty.

isspace()

Return True if the string is a whitespace string, False otherwise.

A string is whitespace if all characters in the string are whitespace and there is at least one character in the string.

istitle()

Return True if the string is a title-cased string, False otherwise.

In a title-cased string, upper- and title-case characters may only follow uncased characters and lowercase characters only cased ones.

isupper()

Return True if the string is an uppercase string, False otherwise.

A string is uppercase if all cased characters in the string are uppercase and there is at least one cased character in the string.

join(iterable, /)

Concatenate any number of strings.

The string whose method is called is inserted in between each given string. The result is returned as a new string.

Example: ‘.’.join([‘ab’, ‘pq’, ‘rs’]) -> ‘ab.pq.rs’

ljust(width, fillchar=' ', /)

Return a left-justified string of length width.

Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).

lower()

Return a copy of the string converted to lowercase.

lstrip(chars=None, /)

Return a copy of the string with leading whitespace removed.

If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.

static maketrans()

Return a translation table usable for str.translate().

If there is only one argument, it must be a dictionary mapping Unicode ordinals (integers) or characters to Unicode ordinals, strings or None. Character keys will be then converted to ordinals. If there are two arguments, they must be strings of equal length, and in the resulting dictionary, each character in x will be mapped to the character at the same position in y. If there is a third argument, it must be a string, whose characters will be mapped to None in the result.

partition(sep, /)

Partition the string into three parts using the given separator.

This will search for the separator in the string. If the separator is found, returns a 3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator itself, and the part after it.

If the separator is not found, returns a 3-tuple containing the original string and two empty strings.

replace(old, new, count=- 1, /)

Return a copy with all occurrences of substring old replaced by new.

count

Maximum number of occurrences to replace. -1 (the default value) means replace all occurrences.

If the optional argument count is given, only the first count occurrences are replaced.

rfind(sub[, start[, end]]) → int

Return the highest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Return -1 on failure.

rindex(sub[, start[, end]]) → int

Return the highest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Raises ValueError when the substring is not found.

rjust(width, fillchar=' ', /)

Return a right-justified string of length width.

Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).

rpartition(sep, /)

Partition the string into three parts using the given separator.

This will search for the separator in the string, starting at the end. If the separator is found, returns a 3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator itself, and the part after it.

If the separator is not found, returns a 3-tuple containing two empty strings and the original string.

rsplit(sep=None, maxsplit=- 1)

Return a list of the words in the string, using sep as the delimiter string.

sep

The delimiter according which to split the string. None (the default value) means split according to any whitespace, and discard empty strings from the result.

maxsplit

Maximum number of splits to do. -1 (the default value) means no limit.

Splits are done starting at the end of the string and working to the front.

rstrip(chars=None, /)

Return a copy of the string with trailing whitespace removed.

If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.

split(sep=None, maxsplit=- 1)

Return a list of the words in the string, using sep as the delimiter string.

sep

The delimiter according which to split the string. None (the default value) means split according to any whitespace, and discard empty strings from the result.

maxsplit

Maximum number of splits to do. -1 (the default value) means no limit.

splitlines(keepends=False)

Return a list of the lines in the string, breaking at line boundaries.

Line breaks are not included in the resulting list unless keepends is given and true.

startswith(prefix[, start[, end]]) → bool

Return True if S starts with the specified prefix, False otherwise. With optional start, test S beginning at that position. With optional end, stop comparing S at that position. prefix can also be a tuple of strings to try.

strip(chars=None, /)

Return a copy of the string with leading and trailing whitespace removed.

If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.

swapcase()

Convert uppercase characters to lowercase and lowercase characters to uppercase.

title()

Return a version of the string where each word is titlecased.

More specifically, words start with uppercased characters and all remaining cased characters have lower case.

tobytes()[source]
static transcode(blob)[source]
translate(table, /)

Replace each character in the string using the given translation table.

table

Translation table, which must be a mapping of Unicode ordinals to Unicode ordinals, strings, or None.

The table must implement lookup/indexing via __getitem__, for instance a dictionary or list. If this operation raises LookupError, the character is left untouched. Characters mapped to None are deleted.

upper()

Return a copy of the string converted to uppercase.

zfill(width, /)

Pad a numeric string with zeros on the left, to fill a field of the given width.

The string is never truncated.

fontTools.misc.py23.UnicodeIO

alias of _io.StringIO

fontTools.misc.py23.basestring

alias of builtins.str

fontTools.misc.py23.bytechr(n)[source]
fontTools.misc.py23.byteord(c)[source]
fontTools.misc.py23.bytesjoin(iterable, joiner=b'')[source]
fontTools.misc.py23.open(file, mode='r', buffering=- 1, encoding=None, errors=None, newline=None, closefd=True, opener=None)

Open file and return a stream. Raise OSError upon failure.

file is either a text or byte string giving the name (and the path if the file isn’t in the current working directory) of the file to be opened or an integer file descriptor of the file to be wrapped. (If a file descriptor is given, it is closed when the returned I/O object is closed, unless closefd is set to False.)

mode is an optional string that specifies the mode in which the file is opened. It defaults to ‘r’ which means open for reading in text mode. Other common values are ‘w’ for writing (truncating the file if it already exists), ‘x’ for creating and writing to a new file, and ‘a’ for appending (which on some Unix systems, means that all writes append to the end of the file regardless of the current seek position). In text mode, if encoding is not specified the encoding used is platform dependent: locale.getpreferredencoding(False) is called to get the current locale encoding. (For reading and writing raw bytes use binary mode and leave encoding unspecified.) The available modes are:

Character

Meaning

‘r’

open for reading (default)

‘w’

open for writing, truncating the file first

‘x’

create a new file and open it for writing

‘a’

open for writing, appending to the end of the file if it exists

‘b’

binary mode

‘t’

text mode (default)

‘+’

open a disk file for updating (reading and writing)

‘U’

universal newline mode (deprecated)

The default mode is ‘rt’ (open for reading text). For binary random access, the mode ‘w+b’ opens and truncates the file to 0 bytes, while ‘r+b’ opens the file without truncation. The ‘x’ mode implies ‘w’ and raises an FileExistsError if the file already exists.

Python distinguishes between files opened in binary and text modes, even when the underlying operating system doesn’t. Files opened in binary mode (appending ‘b’ to the mode argument) return contents as bytes objects without any decoding. In text mode (the default, or when ‘t’ is appended to the mode argument), the contents of the file are returned as strings, the bytes having been first decoded using a platform-dependent encoding or using the specified encoding if given.

‘U’ mode is deprecated and will raise an exception in future versions of Python. It has no effect in Python 3. Use newline to control universal newlines mode.

buffering is an optional integer used to set the buffering policy. Pass 0 to switch buffering off (only allowed in binary mode), 1 to select line buffering (only usable in text mode), and an integer > 1 to indicate the size of a fixed-size chunk buffer. When no buffering argument is given, the default buffering policy works as follows:

  • Binary files are buffered in fixed-size chunks; the size of the buffer is chosen using a heuristic trying to determine the underlying device’s “block size” and falling back on io.DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE. On many systems, the buffer will typically be 4096 or 8192 bytes long.

  • “Interactive” text files (files for which isatty() returns True) use line buffering. Other text files use the policy described above for binary files.

encoding is the name of the encoding used to decode or encode the file. This should only be used in text mode. The default encoding is platform dependent, but any encoding supported by Python can be passed. See the codecs module for the list of supported encodings.

errors is an optional string that specifies how encoding errors are to be handled—this argument should not be used in binary mode. Pass ‘strict’ to raise a ValueError exception if there is an encoding error (the default of None has the same effect), or pass ‘ignore’ to ignore errors. (Note that ignoring encoding errors can lead to data loss.) See the documentation for codecs.register or run ‘help(codecs.Codec)’ for a list of the permitted encoding error strings.

newline controls how universal newlines works (it only applies to text mode). It can be None, ‘’, ‘n’, ‘r’, and ‘rn’. It works as follows:

  • On input, if newline is None, universal newlines mode is enabled. Lines in the input can end in ‘n’, ‘r’, or ‘rn’, and these are translated into ‘n’ before being returned to the caller. If it is ‘’, universal newline mode is enabled, but line endings are returned to the caller untranslated. If it has any of the other legal values, input lines are only terminated by the given string, and the line ending is returned to the caller untranslated.

  • On output, if newline is None, any ‘n’ characters written are translated to the system default line separator, os.linesep. If newline is ‘’ or ‘n’, no translation takes place. If newline is any of the other legal values, any ‘n’ characters written are translated to the given string.

If closefd is False, the underlying file descriptor will be kept open when the file is closed. This does not work when a file name is given and must be True in that case.

A custom opener can be used by passing a callable as opener. The underlying file descriptor for the file object is then obtained by calling opener with (file, flags). opener must return an open file descriptor (passing os.open as opener results in functionality similar to passing None).

open() returns a file object whose type depends on the mode, and through which the standard file operations such as reading and writing are performed. When open() is used to open a file in a text mode (‘w’, ‘r’, ‘wt’, ‘rt’, etc.), it returns a TextIOWrapper. When used to open a file in a binary mode, the returned class varies: in read binary mode, it returns a BufferedReader; in write binary and append binary modes, it returns a BufferedWriter, and in read/write mode, it returns a BufferedRandom.

It is also possible to use a string or bytearray as a file for both reading and writing. For strings StringIO can be used like a file opened in a text mode, and for bytes a BytesIO can be used like a file opened in a binary mode.

class fontTools.misc.py23.range(stop) → range object

range(start, stop[, step]) -> range object

Return an object that produces a sequence of integers from start (inclusive) to stop (exclusive) by step. range(i, j) produces i, i+1, i+2, …, j-1. start defaults to 0, and stop is omitted! range(4) produces 0, 1, 2, 3. These are exactly the valid indices for a list of 4 elements. When step is given, it specifies the increment (or decrement).

count(value) → integer – return number of occurrences of value
index(value) → integer – return index of value.

Raise ValueError if the value is not present.

start
step
stop
fontTools.misc.py23.round(number, ndigits=None)

Round a number to a given precision in decimal digits.

The return value is an integer if ndigits is omitted or None. Otherwise the return value has the same type as the number. ndigits may be negative.

fontTools.misc.py23.strjoin(iterable, joiner='')[source]
fontTools.misc.py23.tobytes(s, encoding='ascii', errors='strict')[source]
fontTools.misc.py23.tostr(s, encoding='ascii', errors='strict')
fontTools.misc.py23.tounicode(s, encoding='ascii', errors='strict')[source]
fontTools.misc.py23.unichr(i, /)

Return a Unicode string of one character with ordinal i; 0 <= i <= 0x10ffff.

fontTools.misc.py23.unicode

alias of builtins.str

fontTools.misc.py23.xrange(*args, **kwargs)[source]
class fontTools.misc.py23.zip

zip(*iterables) –> A zip object yielding tuples until an input is exhausted.

>>> list(zip('abcdefg', range(3), range(4)))
[('a', 0, 0), ('b', 1, 1), ('c', 2, 2)]

The zip object yields n-length tuples, where n is the number of iterables passed as positional arguments to zip(). The i-th element in every tuple comes from the i-th iterable argument to zip(). This continues until the shortest argument is exhausted.